When European Union started to develop it’s own concept for deployment of police components under European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), taking into account previous experiences and the recommendations of the Brahimi Report, one of the possible instruments to be considered were the so called Integrated Police Units (IPU), defined as police components that, according to the European Council conclusions of Feira and Nice, reach the following conditions: - robust, rapidly deployable, flexible and interoperable forces; - able to perform executive tasks; - preferably (to be deployed) in non stabilised situations; - in case of an EU operation including military forces, subject to their national rules and legislation, may be placed temporarily under the responsibility of the military authority entrusted with the protection of the population. To meet the above conditions an IPU must possess the following characteristics: - structured and existing units; - with its own chain of command; - possessing common TTPs and training; - able to perform different police tasks, - capable of self-protection in performing standard police operations; and has to satisfy the following technical aspects: - availability of logistics; - of personnel/unit equipment; - of some heavy equipment (if needed). The above conditions lead to the following characteristics: - robustness. IPUs should be provided with weaponry and equipment to enable them to operate in non stabilised situations; - rapidly deployable. They should be able to deploy within 30 days . A rapidly deployable EUPOL HQ will be essential for this deployment; - flexibility. They should be able to perform different tasks according to mandate; - interoperability. They should be interoperable among themselves and with other Police Elements .
2. Other principles
a. Initiative and flexibility. Commanders and personnel at any rank should have great initiative and a flexible approach to all events. b.Personnel requirements. Personnel must have undergone appropriate training and posess appropriate professional police preparation. 164 c. Information-gathering attitude. IPU personnel at any rank must have a marked orientation to collect information so to establish an information resource for operational needs, notably in the field of criminal intelligence. d.Freedom of action and movement. IPU personnel will have freedom of action and movement in those pre-emptive activities throughout AOR in order to carry out their tasks. e. Contacts with local population. Contacts with local population are an essential factor for succeeding in the assigned mission. f. Security Gap. The use of IPUs is expected to reduce as much as possible the gap in which the military component might assume, on its own, public security and law enforcement tasks: the simultaneous deployment of military and police components will require close coordination including an integration of planning processes.
EU Doctrine for deployment of Police components foresee two main scenarios: strengthening or substitution of local police. IPU can be deployed under substitution scenario and according to the following concepts: during the initial stage IPUs will deploy in assigned AOR where they will exercise area responsibility, while at the stabilisation stage they will exercise functional responsibility.
4. Mission and tasks
Structure of the EUPOL. - Structure of the Mission. The general structure of a police substitution mission is to be considered as a process moving from the initial stage to the final stage adapting the structure to the changing situation and needs. According to the mandate, IPUs can perform a large spectrum of police functions as mentioned in the “substitution mission” scenario, i.e.:
a. patrolling and public surveillance operations; b. information gathering; c. public order, civil disorder, riot and crowd control functions; d.without prejudice to activities to be carried out by specialised units, carry out other police functions and tasking such as: - to conduct criminal investigations; - to investigate major crimes against human rights, assistance to refugees and Internal Displaced Persons (IDP); - to provide support to the International Criminal Courts or Tribunals; - to ensure, if needed, other police functions such as traffic police and border policing; - to provide assistance for security of personnel of the international community; - to perform security tasks such as close protection and VIP escorts.
5. Rules of engagement (ROE)
ROE are essential in order to establish and regulate the use of force by IPUs; they have to be carefully assessed in order to establish whether they are sufficient for, or compatible with, achieving the aims of the mission, taking into account the proactive attitude of police forces.
6. Command and control
In the Nice European Council Conclusions it was acknowledged that, where necessary, military and police components must be part of an integrated planning process and should be used on the ground in a closely co-ordinated manner. In the initial stage of the EUPOL the deployed IPUs will have an area responsibility in which they will exercise the main police functions. In the case of operations to be conducted in an area under military responsibility, the police will seek the assignment of its own Tactical Area of Responsibility (TAOR) or “Blue Box”.
7. EU chain of command
Police components of a EU-led mission must be placed under an EU Chain Of Command. In this case the chain of command will be determined according to decisions taken by the EU Council through approval of the Joint Action and CONOPS .
8. Information exchange
EUPOL will actively seek and exchange information with other main Actors in Theatre notably with the Military component regarding the security situation and development of operations on the ground, as part of the force protection measures.
As a matter of strategy the EUPOL logistic in any stage should be kept flexible and commensurate with the operationality requested by the mandate and tasks assigned. This can only be achieved by combined planning of IPU’s and EUPOL logistic capabilities. Concepts like the ones of Lead nation or Role specialist Nation apply to the IPU logistic doctrine and are one of the main instrument to ensure interoperability between different components. A EUPOL must be able to solve the logistic problems related to: a. its self-sufficiency. b. The Logistic Structures. c. Logistic Activities such as: - supplies; - restocking; - maintenance; - Recovery and Evacuation of Equipment; - transportation; - Medical and Health Care Support; - Financial and Logistic Policy.
10. Communications and informations systems
The Lead Nations contributing the IPUs will solve the CIS problems for their respective AOR in coordination with EUPOL HQ.
11. Communications architecture
Political/Strategic level. These links are provided to connect Brussels with EUPOL HQ and EUSR (if appointed). Operational level. To connect the EUPOL HQ with the EUSR (if appointed), the different IPUs and other mission components. Tactical level. To connect the IPU staff with its subordinate elements and other police elements deployed in the same AOR.
12. Training and exercises
Rapid deployment and interoperability of EUPOL HQ, IPUs and other specialised components is strictly linked to a specific training and exercise policy to be implemented over time by the Member States following a programme that can be prepared by the Council General Secretariat.
13. Interoperability of IPUs
Similarity in functionality of IPUs. Composition and dimension of IPUs is and remains a national issue. Nevertheless, as explained in this document and in the light of enhanced interoperability, IPUs should have a similar structure mainly based on the Commander, a Staff, the operational component and logistic element. The achievement of a standardised structure will enable planners at all levels to make better use of available IPUs. Member States should consider this proposal in developing IPUs for deployment under ESDP. Specific SOP for IPUs. Building on the experience of the European Union Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina, EUPM, generic SOP are foreseen for the Member States to approve and to use as a basis for training and to adjust their own internal regulations according to the possible deployment of IPUs under EU crisis management..
(*) - Colonel of Carabinieri Force, trainee at the “Istituto Alti Studi della Difesa” (Institute of
High School of Defence.